or "da-nun-na", meaning "princely
offspring" or "offspring of Anu". According to The Oxford Companion to World
Mythology, the Anunnaki: "...are the Sumerian deities of the old
primordial line; they are chthonic deities
of fertility, associated eventually with the underworld, where they became
judges. They take their name from the old sky god An (Anu)."
prominent of these deities being Enlil, god of the air. According to legends,
heaven and earth were once inseparable until Enlil was born; Enlil cleaved
heaven and earth in two. Anu carried away heaven. Ki, in company with Enlil,
took the earth.
since there is no evidence of a cult and the name appears only in a limited
number of Sumerian creation texts. Samuel Noah Kramer identifies Ki with the Sumerian mother
goddess Ninhursag, and claims that they were
originally the same figure.[3
are used synonymously but in the Atra-Hasis flood myth the
Igigi are the sixth generation of the gods who have to work for the Anunnaki,
rebelling after 40 days and replaced by the creation of humans.
on the Igigi and the Anunnaki, writing that
"lgigu or Igigi is a term introduced in the Old Babylonian Period as a
name for the (ten) 'great gods'. While it sometimes kept that sense in later
periods, from Middle Assyrian and Babylonian times on it is generally used to
refer to the gods of heaven collectively, just as the term Anunnakku (Anuna)
was later used to refer to the gods of the underworld. In the Epic
of Creation, it is said that there are 300 lgigu of heaven."
divides the Anunnaki and assigns them to their proper stations, three hundred
in heaven, three hundred on the earth. In gratitude, the Anunnaki, the
"Great Gods", built Esagila, the splendid: "They raised high the
head of Esagila equaling Apsu.
Having built a stage-tower as high as Apsu, they set up in it an abode for
Marduk, Enlil, Ea." Then they built their own shrines.[citation
the story of the flood. The seven judges of hell are called the Anunnaki, and
they set the land aflame as the storm is approaching.
the Anunnaki were the children of Anu and Ki, brother and sister gods, themselves the
children of Anshar and Kishar (Skypivot
and Earthpivot, the Celestial poles), who in turn were the
children of Lahamu and Lahmu ("the muddy ones"), names
given to the gatekeepers of the Abzu (House of Far Waters) temple at Eridu,
the site at which the creation was
thought to have occurred. Finally, Lahamu and Lahmu were the children of Tiamat (Goddess
of the Ocean) and Abzu (God of Fresh Water).
Black, Jeremy and Green, Anthony: Gods,
Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary University
of Texas Press (Aug 1992) ISBN 978-0-292-70794-8 p.34
David (2009). The
Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0195387087.
"Sumerian Mythology: Chapter II. Myths of
Sacred Text Archive.
Retrieved 14 December 2016.
Gwendolyn: A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Mythology (NY:
Routledge, 1998), p. 85
Jeremy and Green, Anthony: Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated
Dictionary University of Texas Press (Aug 1992) ISBN 978-0-292-70794-8 p.106 
Enuma Elish, tablet 1, verse 156
N. K. Sandars (translator):
"The Epic of Gilgamesh", Penguin Books, London (2006) ISBN 978-0-141-02628-2 p.52
comparison of all world pantheons and the monomythological connection of these
god-patriarchs with other culture pantheons, see "Kingship At Its
Source" by Dr. John D. Pilkey, and a preface monograph at